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Free on request. For the person who WHY YOU SHOULD APPREuses towels away CIATE SCOTTISSUE TOWELS from home. AT WORK." Free on request. For housewives. "USES OF SCOTTISSUE IN THE HOME." Also free on request. SCOTT PAPER COMPANY 723 Glenwood Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. Originators of the Absorbent Paper Towel A NAYIION ON THE WA= WAG ON (Continued from Page 5) manufactured within its confines, except in limited amounts and with low percentages of alcohol. Meantime the country not only manufactures no alcohol but would seem to contain none. A little very bad and very expensive wine is served in one or two of the leading hotels of Petrograd, but not elsewhere. And the people are happy. When the head of the army gave the tip to the Czar he no doubt remembered the mobilization for the Japanese War. The soldiers then were carried, dead with intoxication, to the trains. When they came to stations those who could walk tore wildly out of the coaches for the saloons, and if barkeepers refused to sell they broke bottles over their heads. In terror the drilled troops in charge of recruits telegraphed ahead to stations to have two hundred or more soldiers on hand when the train went through. Even under such surveillance the men sometimes broke open the doors of the trains and tore up the railroad stations. Several commanders in one quarter were terrified at getting three hundred men without convoy, and all drunk. An article was printed recently in a paper called The Voice of Moscow which stated: "The reservists searched every man as he entered the barracks. All had vodka. The searchers always threw it into the street. In one peasant's rags eleven bottles were found. His eyes ran with tears when he saw them broken. The heap of shattered glass grew. A dirty stream of vodka flowed through the courtyard. Many threw themselves on their knees and, in spite of the dirt, tried to drink from the pools. They were kicked back. Three truckloads of broken glass were transported." There is nothing in the present mobilization to remind one of that disgraceful scene. Men in the cleanest and newest of long tan coats walk erect and in sturdy lines. As you pass them on the pavements they scan you with a childlike gaze, alert with intelligent wonder. They know where they are going and what they are going for—that is to say, they are aware that they are to fight, and they have their private notions as to the end for which they are dying. They are so perfectly sober that they can realize I am of a different race, and they put out one glance that is like a momentary gangplank, bridging for an instant the space and the eternity that flows between them and me. Count Witte's Motives Questioned However, we have not yet explained why the former Prime Minister opposed the abolition of vodka nor why Count Witte is understood to have worked for its defeat. The subject strikes well down into the structural framework of the empire. The government not only owned the industry but from it derived a third of its yearly budget. One billion rubles was the annual income of Russia from the sale of intoxicating drink. The former Prime Minister thought the nation would go into bankruptcy if cut off from such a sum. As for Count Witte, he was the man under whom the government took control of its liquor business. Before that it had been in private hands. He placed the nation on a firm financial basis and standardized the ruble. Now that he is no longer in power some have accused him of being unwilling to see the country prosper by the work of his brain. The director of one of the biggest banks in the world told me that the ruble owed its consistent standard value to the vodka industry. At present it is depreciated, not because all sales of intoxicants have been stopped, but on account of the "accidental fact "——ttoo quote the same informant— "that the market was caught short of foreign remittances when the war began, with heayy engagements, all in the same direction. Several banks had, as usual in the late spring, sold bills of exchange on London, Paris and Berlin, for maturity in the autumn, in anticipation of the sale abroad of cereals, which constitute the main exports of the country. Before the crops could be moved and the grain exported the war broke out, the Dardanelles was closed, and, since the goods were bottled up in Russia, the bills of exchange were inoperative." At any rate the sale of vodka has been stopped, and the man who stabilized the monetary unit at an almost unwavering value of approximately half a dollar has recently, from his private retreat, watched the ruble decline to thirty-three cents. The government did not originally take over the industry because of the revenue to be gained thereby. It assumed charge of the business to insure a purer product and to restrict drinking somewhat. The disgrace of the Japanese War rankled in the hearts of the bureaucracy. When the nation assumed control it, at the same time, started a temperance society. Some merely shook their heads and said: "The Russian Empire may know its own purposes, but nobody else can fathom them." To control a liquor business with one hand and a ternperance society with the other did not seem logical to the onlooking nations. They put the Prince of Oldenburg, uncle of the Czar and one of the accomplished gentlemen of the Empire, at the head of the prohibition movement. All other signs failing, the society and its director would seem to constitute a pledge that they did not intend to press the liquor traffic. How to Open a Vodka Bottle The authorities established small shops in all the villages and cities of the country and they made rules governing the sales. One could buy only for cash. Formerly peasants had pledged their crops to the private merchants. They had passed their boots over the counter. They had promised that their wives and daughters would do menial work for the tradesman if he would only supply them immediately with vodka. The,government made the further rule that nobody should drink inside the shop. It put up vodka in small bottles, which it sold for fifteen kopecks each; and it refunded two kopecks on every empty bottle. One of the sights of Petrograd at the noon hour was to see workmen take their turns in front of the small government vodka shops. Each had his fifteen kopecks firmly pressed in the palm of his right hand. In turn he passed it over, the counter, took his slender bottle of the white fluid and walked outside. Not very far out, however! Once past the door he stopped and knocked the bottom of the bottle lightly against a corner of the wooden building; whereupon the jar exploded the slight amount of gas in- side and the thin wax seal flew off. Then he closed his mouth on the long neck of the bottle, threw back his head, and let the fluid stream down his throat. Every government shop bears unmistakable evidence of its sales in the millions of dents on its sides. The government made no restriction as to the number of treats with which the work- man might favor himself, and I gave the wrong impression if I have led anyone to believe that he limited the exercise to the luncheon period. All day long citizens of the cities and the country shadowed the doors of the Czar's vodka shops. The gov- ernment had meant to restrict drinking; but human nature, which underlies all things created by, human brains, got the better of it. Every sale meant thirteen kopecks toward defraying the expenses of the government. The time came when, if sales lagged in one of the stores, an official note was dispatched to the man who had charge of it, asking that he take care to bring them up. As against this activity the temperance society began issuing primers and pam- phlets, illustrated with the most distressing of scenes from the lives of habitual drunkards. They depicted men roughly handled by. the police; men freezing in the streets; men hanging themselves when out of their heads from the use of vodka. Members of the Duma began to agitate against the terrible menace to the empire; but their words and the pathetic little tracts of the society were unequally pitted against so great an engine as the bureaucracy. In one particular—and one only—the government succeeded in maintaining its strict integrity: It kept the spirits uniformly pure. Under private ownership the liquor ran up to high percentages of alcohol and at times contained drugs. Though the government produced two grades of vodka, the product never varied from the fixed standard of forty per cent alcohol. Individuals owned the distilleries in which they made crude spirits from maize and potatoes, but they were allowed to sell only to the government, and the government itself did all the refining under strict inspection


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