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42 THE SATURDAY EVENING POST February 24, 1940 What they've learned about nerves can help you in your job HERE'S one job, you'll admit, that takes unusually steady nerves. The knife-thrower just can't miss—and his human target mustn't wince. So these performers, like most professionals, drink hot coffee daily. Because coffee relieves nervous tension ... makes for better coordination between mind and muscle. Helps to relieve fatigue, too, by removing its very cause. So when you are tense or tired, drink coffee as they do—for a quick exhilarating IS THERE A COFFEE FESTIVAL IN YOUR TOWN? Leading department stores are featuring, during February and March, the latest in coffee- brewing devices and demonstrating the best methods of brewing coffee. You'll find it interesting. DON'T MISS IT! pick-up. And if you're like 97 out of 100 people,* you'll enjoy your coffee and a good night's sleep too. For this helpful lift lasts only two hours. 'Medical authority on request PAN AMERICAN COFFEE BUREAU, NEW YORK CITY RIGHT or WRONG? Con you score 100% in this 1-minute Coffee Over! COFFEE SHARPENS THE MIND Right? q Wrong? El For centuries, the greatest writers and scholars have turned to coffee for inspiration. Because coffee makes the brain "click -... induces clear thinking . . enlivens conversation. Check "Right" above. COFFEE LEAVES A "HANGOVER" Right Wrong ?q It is true that coffee is stimulating, but this stimulation lasts only two hours. And, unlike most other stimulants, coffee does not pick you up only to let you down later. Check "Wrong.' above. p (Continued from Page 39) In the motion-picture industry, they sometimes complete their " blueprints "—read "script"—before they start to shoot a picture. The aircraft industry doesn't. Because of the time element in General Blank's contract, we are revising our script clear down to the time the new airplane flies. And sometimes afterward. Furthermore—and here's where the "theoretically" comes in—we don't fully complete the design of one unit— in this case the fuselage—before going gaily on to another. The Engineering Department has innumerable excuses for this, and possibly one or two of them are legitimate, but I have my private doubts. My theory of most production men is that engineers draw up everything that's easy before they tatkle anything that requires thought. Which is why we find that the status of the fuselage, six weeks after the starting gun, is somewhat as follows: Engineering has released Frames— measured in inches from the forward end of the ship-10, 60 and 70, 80, 90, 110 and 150, and all of the stringers and skin plating. They have, however, neglected to release Frames 20, 25 and most of the rest. This for the reason that they haven't made up their minds as to the precise way in which the wings will be tied to the fuselage nor quite how the bomb bay will be braced. Nor, for that matter, have they decided any number of other things that would be rather useful to know— most of them involving castings, forgings, machined fittings or other highly unobtainable details. Which is where I come in. I'm a poor devil of a Production man. It is rather difficult to outline Production's duties. They are too varied. Generally speaking, its task can be compared to cramming a toy balloon through a keyhole. On the one hand, it has been allotted a specified number of labor hours in which to build an airplane. Those hours roughly correspond to the balloon. On the other hand, it is told that these labor hours must be used up in an elapsed time of sixteen weeks. The sixteen weeks are the keyhole. Suppose you are so unfortunate as to be the boss of Production. I, thank God, am not! You know that your plant with a capacity of, say, 1500 men has, on a forty-hour basis, 60,000 potential man-hours weekly, about half of which—since most aircraft factories build more than one model ship—is already non est so far as our bomber is concerned. verse backing and filling by foremen and mechanics. In the interim, you'll have 30,000 man-hours standing around with nothing to do; there isn't really a good day's work for a WPA worker in the whole Bomber Division. Lastly, during the eight weeks it takes Engineering, the Loft and Tooling to get the job downstairs, you'll spend three hours a day telling the front office just why it is that you haven't an airplane sitting, practically complete, in the center of the Final Assembly floor. What do you say? What can you say? You've known for weeks you couldn't meet the flight date. But you can't tell the front office that. So you look grave and thoughtful. You thumb through the schedules and production charts of past contracts. Finally, you allow, carefully, that whereas it's going to be a close squeeze, you think you can meet the date. You add slyly, "I'll have to have unlimited overtime." Nightmare on Wings On that one, the front office-ers rise, gnash their collective teeth and scream, "No! No overtime! We've figured the job too close!" You exit swiftly. Knowing, still, that you won't meet the flight date, and that you will have unlimited over- time. The unavailability of machined parts, castings and forgings is just plain hell to Production men. It haunts our dreams. It makes our hands shake and our souls rebel, and sends us to unknown graves in the bloom of our youth. This is why: About 90 per cent of the structural parts used in an airplane are made of sheet metal. Sheet-metal parts are ordinarily a cinch; if there is any special rush they can be made in the plant's own sheet-metal shop. Machined parts, except in rare instances, cannot. They have to be fabricated to close tolerances on a lathe, milling machine or shaper. And since no airplane factory ever had a machine shop big enough to take care of its peak-production work, much of this will be f armed out to outside productionjob shops. These job shops are often miles away—too far, for instance, to allow our engineers to breathe down the back of the machinist's neck while he tries to explain the dimensions on some undecipherable drawing of a widget. Later, of course, the screwy drawings will have been corrected, and we'll have castings or forgings for most of these fittings, made at the foundry in such shapes and contours as to minimize the machinist's work to one or two simplified and tool-guided operations. But for the first ship—and frequently for the first several ships—there will be no forgings or castings. We haven't time for that. So almost every machined part will have to be hogged out of bar or billet stock. There'll be rejections due to faulty machine work. There'll be ditto for Engineering errors. And all this time, foremen and superintendents will be screaming to Production for fittings, while the assembly jigs stand idle. For here's a little joker we've held up until now: Every one of those machined fittings is a key item in the structure of our bomber. It may be a wing-attachment fitting, or a landing-gear support, or a two- inch bracket to which the aileron hinge (Continued on Page 44) REMEMBER E1411 To make good coffee, use aaaaaaaaaaa tablespoonful to each cup. Published by the Pan Anntricon coffee producers, for the benefit of the American public, the largest consumers of coffee in the world BRAZIL • COLOMBIA • CUBA • EL SALVADOR • NICARAGUA • VENEZUELA A Race With Time That leaves 30,000 man-hours available. But they've given you a seventeen-week manufacturing schedule and an estimated 500,000 manhours to ease into that time. A cinch! By simple division you can apply the ' 30,000 weekly man-hours against 500,- (100 and see that you almost have your seventeen weeks in which to develop, train for, and build. a brand-new airplane. Which would be all right, if the ship were fully engineered, and the tools were set, and the material were in stock. None of which is the ease. You can absolutely depend on having at least eight of your available sixteen or seventeen weeks wasted while you wait for Engineering and the Tooling I )epti rt men t. Another four weeks will be wasted in changes. stop-work orders, and di-


Bombers_by_the_Pound
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