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1924_The Art of Public Speaking

148 THE S.RTURDAY EVENING POST April 26,1924 BRIGHTON- CARLSBAD yeepingwear Tfis is Easy - in Glover's pajamas ! Other special Brighton-Carlsbad pajamas-for-a-purpose— all with sidelies— include: "Traveler's" "Thrift" eek End" Write for "The Nightie Book," de- scribing them. You can even do setting-up exercises in Glover's Brighton-Carlsbads— they are so roomy and comfortable. And they are amazingly good-looking—as skillfully tailored.sus • Take the athletic young men in the picture— wearing Glover's Bachelor's Pal Dormitory Special On or off in a jiffy. No Semi-belted, peppy enough buttons to lose. for the midnight frolic. Like the "Week-end," "Traveler's," and "Thrift" Specials also, these pajamas-for-apurpose have novel side-ties (instead of the binding drawstring) and other exclusive comfort kinks. They're generously roomy in cut, easy-fitting, as finely tailored as your outer clothes! So with all the many styles in Glover's Brighton-Carlsbads. Treat yourself, today, to real comfort and economy in nightwear—ask for Glover's at your favorite store. If they can't supply you, send us $3.75 for a trial suit of "Bachelor's Pal" (in white broadcloth—$4.50 in colored charmeuse) or $4.00 for the "Dormitcry Special." Sizes A, B, C, D. Guaranteed to please! Children's Sleepers Several splendid styles, made to stand a child's hard wear. Cambric, crepe. pajama check, nainsoots. Ages, I to 10. $1 to $3. IGHTON SARLSBAD Equally ac fine as these sleeping garments are Glover Sort Goner Shirts. Marvelous tailoring and perfect fit distinguish them. A wide selection of handsome fabrics. Ask your dealer or write us. .1.nn1(9 H. B. GLOVER COMPANY Dept. 3, Dubuque, Iowa 13SLgEE PINGWEAR your finest apparel. Pajamas of Glover quality M styles and fabrics for every taste, $2.25 to $18. Nightshirts equally fine—nainsook, muslin, pongee, sizes 15 to 20. $1.50 to $3. (Sizes for boys, also.) of an opponent—"like a man emptying a barrel of coal ashes in a high wind." But able public men who could crack jokes effectively and tell amusing stories delightfully, and who gave rein to their disposition, have ruined their reputations for statesmanship by thus acquiring reputations as wits and humorists. S. S. Cox, of New York—Sunset Cox, as he was called— is a notable example; in later life this uncommonly capable statesman bewailed his facility as a fun maker and said that it had checked his political progress, which undoubtedly was the case. Lincoln was prudent in the extreme in this regard; notwithstanding his gift of humor and his skill in story telling, you will find scarcely a trace of them in his debates with Douglas, and not the faintest gleam in his Cooper Union speech or other historic addresses. It is related of Oliver P. Morton, who had a remarkable aptitude for remark and narration that would send audiences into gales of laughter, that after he had thus affected a political state convention he told his friends in despair that he feared he had ruined his future, but that if he could live down that funny speech he never would tell another story or perpetrate another witticism in a public address as long as he lived. And he never did. After all, such things are admissions by the speaker that he cannot hold his audience by facts and reason, but must rest and amuse them by the comic and grotesque. When a story must be told, make it brief, not over one minute at the very outside. And, unless you cannot control your enjoyment of yourself, do not laugh or chuckle over your own jokes; to do so is as if you should stop and clap your hands at what you think one of your eloquent passages. This does not mean that you should be stolid and dry as dust. Quite the contrary. In oratory as in conversation, dullness is one of the unpardonable sins. It is not necessary to be heavy in order to be informed. So let your remarks be bright and pointed. In fact the audience wants nothing of the speaker so much as that he shall get to the point. We remember the advice of a veteran on the platform to an aspiring young orator: "If you don't strike oil in two minutes, stop boring." Fairness in Debate Above all things, keep unction out of your speech. Indulge in no holier-than-thou appeals. Pleas for "righteousness" have so often been made by mountebanks that all of us have come to suspect the users of such verbal sanctimoniousness. You can take many risks, but you cannot hazard doubt of your good faith. Of even greater importance, if possible, than the rule of clearness and simplicity is that of fairness. The speaker must be so just that his strongest opponent will admit that he is fair. State the other side as well as its ablest advocate could present it, and then give your reasons against it. Then tell what you stand for, and advance the facts and reasons in support of your position. What you are trying to do, and all you ought to do, is to instruct those who have not mastered the subject as you have done and to convince them that your opponents are wrong and you are right. So never misrepresent your opponent; even the exigencies of politics do not justify falsehood. Make your state/tent of his position so just and unbiased that even he will concede your fairness. Personalities have no place in the speech of a gentleman—and always you must be that, a matter I shall say more about when I consider the rules of delivery. So avoid personalities—at best they are cheap, and, besides, the use of them gives your audience the impression that you are prejudiced. When that happens you have lost an asset. For the same reason denounce only when there is real and blazing cause for such scourging, which seldom is the case. Abuse and vituperation are indefensible except in rare instances. Also they are the most dangerous weapons in the arsenal of oratory, poisoned daggers which usually wound and infect those who wield them. For the most part your attitude should be that of kindliness—not an assumed kindliness, which is mere hypocrisy, but genuine kindliness that flows from a friendly heart. After all, most people mean well, and you ought to feel toward them and speak to them accordingly. Strong, good and able public men of a certain temperament frequently impair their usefulness by assuming that all who do not agree with them are scoundrels. Their souls have soured and, with malice toward all and charity for none, vilification of opponents becomes habitual. But see what an error it is, even as a matter of art! Do we not instinctively turn away from the suspicious, vindictive person of ill-feeling and bitter speech? All this does not mean that the public speaker shall be a flabby sentimentalist, uttering milk-and-water platitudes. Far from it. Be practical, be pointed, let your blade be bright and have a keen edge— only do not dull and stain it with animosity. Even so, I would rather hear a speech with some acid in it than one so pious and unnaturally good that it is not human; such talk always makes me feel that lukewarm diluted treacle is being poured over me. Sometimes, to be sure, though not often, denunciation is needed. When it is needed, strike and spare not. Call a spade a spade, and name names. But let the fire of your assault be made hotter by regret and reluctance that facts and the public interest compel your burning words—only do not say that you are sorry that you must so speak, for your audience will see it if you really feel it. Rules of Delivery Not long ago a man of discernment told me that the radio will destroy public speaking; for, said he, " We listened in the other night and heard the speeches at a great banquet. They were on taxation; and they sounded very thin—few • points, little argument, facts rare, words numerous." But does not that prove that the radio will help restore oratory, since the public will demand facts and reasons, well and briefly stated, will tolerate only real eloquence and will reject in disgust banal sentiment and wordy emptiness? The after-dinner speech is now recognized as a branch of oratory; but, generally speaking, it is, rather, a form of entertainment. At such times we tolerate and even enjoy "flights of eloquence" and humorous burlesques which would not impress us on important occasions. Still, even in banquet oratory, all is not trifling, and a speaker with a message may, perhaps, without offense to hearers or disadvantage to himself or herself, heed the rules herein stated. Some after-dinner speeches that have found places in literature have been the result of just such processes. Of course the highest of rostrums for the uttering of .noblest truths is the pulpit. Since, as a rule, preachers have given their lives to study, they need only to keep up to date in science, theology, philosophy and general literature to write sermons rich in wisdom and human helpfulness: Indeed most of them do—the best public addresses of the last fifty years and today were and are made by preachers. Take, for example, Beecher, Simpson, Lorimer, Brooks, and others of only slightly lesser stature. Where most preachers are deficient is in delivery. Fine sermons are often ruined by Bible thumping, machine-gun utterance and other offensivenesses. Let us now examine this question of delivery. It is barely second in importance to the matter of the address, since it must be spoken well and agreeably in order to reach and impress the hearers, or even to be understood by them. The rules of delivery may be indexed thus: Speak quietly and naturally. Be serene, never pompous. Enunciate distinctly. Control emotion, never get excited. Dress well, neither negligently nor with ostentation. Suppress the craving for applause. Stop when you are through. To enlarge upon these briefly: To begin with, stand still, at least for a while. It is better not to move about at all, but if you cannot remain in the same place during your address, do so until the audience gets used to you and until you have shown your composure, your mastery of yourself. Speak slowly, especially when beginning, but only slowly enough to make your words understood. This does not mean to drag out your syllables—that is painful to your hearers. I have listened to speakers who separated words so much that only by close attention could the connection between them he realized. (Continued on Page 151)


1924_The Art of Public Speaking
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