Garden All Winter Long

The onset of freezing temperatures spells the end to most gardening activities, but some gardeners just don’t want to throw in the trowel. And why should they, when they can create their own microclimate in an inexpensive cold frame.

Greenhouse growers have long used cold frames to harden off vegetable and flower seedlings. Transparent-roofed enclosures, built low to the ground and placed in a sunny location, cold frames are minigreenhouses whose tops can be opened, allowing new starts to acclimate before they are planted in the garden. But today’s home gardeners rely on them just as much to extend the harvesting season. Plants sheltered in a cold frame are protected from chill winds and rain. Solar energy captured through the glass or transparent plastic lid keeps the soil from freezing. With an inside temperature 7 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than outside, a cold frame environment simulates a growing location 300 miles farther south.

With a cold frame, gardeners may harvest cold-tolerant vegetables and greens for a month longer in the fall and enjoy crisp homegrown salads a month earlier in the spring. Some hardy plants such as Swiss chard can survive all winter in a cold frame if it is covered with a heavy cloth on the coldest nights.

Building a Cold Frame

Commercial cold frames range in price from $99 to more than $450 and are available from garden supply stores and over the Internet, through such Web sites as and, among others.

But you can save money by using salvaged materials to build your own.

All you need is an old window frame for the top and some lumber. You can even use an old shower door—clear or frosted—for the top, which only needs to be translucent to allow solar energy to pass through and warm the soil below.

A cold frame can be any length, but limiting the depth to 4 feet or less can spare you from having to stretch when planting and harvesting.

Before you begin, find a proper location. Your cold frame should be placed in a south-facing spot that receives sun for most of the day. Up against a house, garage, or outbuilding is a preferred location, but simply setting one out in your garden patch will work.

Take care that the soil under your cold frame has good drainage. If you are unsure, dig down a couple feet and fill with gravel, then place a layer of soil over the stone.

For an early-spring crop, plant seeds directly in the cold frame in mid-January. When the soil begins to warm, the seeds will sprout. (For an early-winter crop, plant in late August or September.)

Prop the top open during the day to vent excess heat in spring and fall. You won’t need to vent in winter. Also keep the soil watered until freezing weather sets in. The soil under a cold frame will dry out more quickly than outside.

Cold Frame Plan

Illustrated by Niff Nicholls

Using a salvaged window 32″ x 26″



1. Cut 3 30” 1” x 6” boards and 4 24” 1” x 6” boards. Build 30” x 24” bottom frame. Predrill and screw sides onto front and back pieces with 2 1½” screws at each end.

2. Attach 2 10½” 1” x 2” braces to the inside back corner of the frame using 1¼” screws. Predrill and attach top back piece to the corner braces.

3. Place the top side pieces in position. Using a straight edge, scribe a line from the top of the back to the front bottom corner of the board. Cut each board on this angle.

4. Attach one angled board to the back and one through the tip into the bottom frame using 1½” screws. Attach a 9” 1” x 2” brace—made from the 4′ pine board— at the center of each side with 1¼” screws.

5. Place the window on the box. Position correctly and mark for the hinges. Predrill the hinge holes and screw the top, using 1” screws, into place.

Fall Family Gardens

Fall has arrived, and the kids are back in school. What better time to provide your children or grandchildren with a lesson in edible fall gardens. The whole family will enjoy planting (and eventually eating) fresh vegetables from your own backyard.

Lesson 1: Know the average date of the first hard frost in your region. Then check the date on the seed packets for the recommended harvesting days. Count backwards from the frost date to determine the proper planting time.

Lesson 2: Know what to plant. If your fall season is typically mild, cauliflower and cucumbers are good choices, in addition to crops that are more tolerant of the colder climates. These include broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, carrots, beets, collards, kale, kohlrabi, mustard, onions, radishes, spinach, lettuce, turnips, and Swiss chard.

Know the average date of the first hard frost in your region. The NCDC Freeze/Frost maps can help.
Know the average date of the first hard frost in your region. The NCDC Freeze/Frost maps can help.

Lesson 3: Finally, know how to protect your garden from the enemy: cold weather. Together, your family can build a miniature greenhouse known as a cold frame. This will help protect plants from frigid winds and dropping temperatures. Cold frames can be constructed with a variety of materials. Some use polycarbonate or glass; others use plastic or nylon sheeting held up with wire hoops or wood frames. You can make a cold frame using an old window and scrap lumber just by nailing the scrap wood together to form a four-sided base, or fasten the ends to the sides using galvanized L-brackets and galvanized screws. (Be sure to use untreated lumber as chemicals from treated lumber may contaminate the soil and produce). Then, top it with a storm window. Consider hinging the window to the frame at the back so the window can be propped open on warm days.

The height of the sides should accommodate the crops you want to grow. Recommended frame dimensions include 3 feet by 6 feet or 4 feet by 8 feet. The height should be about 8 to 12 inches.

Position the cold frame on a south-facing slope backed by a building, which will protect the frame from north and west winds. Seed the frame with your selected cool-season veggies and enjoy your crops fresh into winter!

The National Garden Bureau provides a helpful directory for researching local garden extensions: