Theologian, playwright, and novelist G.K. Chesterton inspired a slew of 20th-century personalities including C.S. Lewis, George Bernard Shaw, and even Mahatma Gandhi. His criticism and writings on Catholicism were matched, in sum, by his detective stories that featured the recurring sleuth Father Brown and the criminal Flambeau. In “The Flying Stars,” an improvisational parlor game turns sour after some gifted diamonds go missing. Chesterton’s mysteries offer meditations on philosophy and ethics as the cast of characters interact on their own terms of class and impertinence.
Published on May 20, 1911
“The most beautiful crime I ever committed,” Flambeau would say in his highly moral old age, “was also, by a singular coincidence, my last. It was committed at Christmas. As an artist I had always attempted to provide crimes suitable to the special season or landscapes in which I found myself, choosing this or that terrace or garden for a catastrophe as if for a statuary group. Thus, squires should be swindled in long rooms paneled with oak; while Jews, on the other hand, should rather find themselves unexpectedly penniless among the lights and screens of the Café Riche. Thus, in England, if I wished to relieve a dean of his riches — which is not so easy as you might suppose — I wished to frame him, if I make myself clear — to frame him in the green lawns and gray towers of some cathedral town.
“Similarly, in France, when I had got money out of a rich and wicked peasant — which is almost impossible — it gratified me to get his indignant head relieved against a gray line of clipped poplars and those solemn plains of Gaul over which broods the mighty spirit of Millet.
“Well, my last crime was a Christmas crime — a cheery, cozy, English middle-class crime; a crime of Charles Dickens. I did it in a good old middle-class house near Putney — a house with a crescent of carriage drive; a house with a stable by the side of it; a house with the name on the two outer gates; a house with a monkey tree. Enough; you know the species. I really think my imitation of Dickens’ style was dexterous and literary. It seems almost a pity I repented the same evening.”
Flambeau would then proceed to tell the story from the inside; and even from the inside it was odd. Seen from the outside, it was perfectly incomprehensible; and it is from the outside that the stranger must study it. From this standpoint the drama may be said to have begun when the front door of the house with the stable opened on the garden with the monkey tree and a young girl came out, with bread to feed the birds, on the afternoon of Boxing Day. She had a pretty face, with brave brown eyes, but her figure was beyond conjecture; for she was so wrapped up in brown furs that it was hard to say which was hair and which was fur — but for the attractive face, she might have been a small, toddling bear.
The winter afternoon was reddening toward evening and already a ruby light was rolled over the bloomless beds, filling them, as it were, with the ghosts of the dead roses. On one side of the house stood the stable; on the other an alley or cloister of laurels led to the larger garden behind. The young lady, having scattered bread for the birds — for the fourth or fifth time that day, because the dog ate it — passed unobtrusively down the lane of laurels and into a glimmering plantation of evergreens behind. Here she gave an exclamation of wonder, real or ritual, and looking up at the high garden wall above her beheld it fantastically bestridden by a somewhat fantastic figure.
“Oh, don’t jump, Mr. Crook!” she called out in some alarm. “It’s much too high.”
The individual riding the party wall like an aerial horse was a tall, angular young man, with dark hair sticking up like a hairbrush, intelligent and even distinguished lineaments, but a sallow and almost alien complexion. This showed the more plainly because he wore an aggressive red tie, the only part of his costume of which he seemed to take any care. Perhaps it was a symbol. He took no notice of the girl’s alarmed adjuration, but leaped like a grasshopper to the ground beside her.
“I think I was meant to be a burglar,” he said placidly; “and I have no doubt I should have been if I hadn’t happened to be born in that nice house next, door. I can’t see any harm in it anyhow.”
“How can you say such things!” she remonstrated.
“Well, if you’re born on the wrong side of the wall I can’t see that it’s wrong to climb over it.”
“I never know what you will say or do next,” she said.
“I don’t often know, myself,” replied Mr. Crook; “but, then, I am on the right side of the wall now.”
“And which is the right side of the wall?” asked the young lady, smiling.
“Whichever side you are on,” said the young man named Crook.
As they went together through the laurels toward the front garden a motor horn sounded thrice, coming nearer and nearer — a car of splendid speed, great elegance and a pale green color swept up to the front door like a bird and stood throbbing.
“Hello! Hello!” said the young man with the red tie. “Here’s somebody born on the right side anyhow. I didn’t know, Miss Adams, that your Santa Claus was so modern as this.”
“Oh, that’s my godfather, Sir Leopold Fischer; he always comes on Boxing Day.”
Then, after an innocent pause which unconsciously betrayed some lack of enthusiasm, Ruby Adams added:
“He is very kind.”
John Crook, journalist, had heard of that eminent city magnate — and it was not his fault if the city magnate had not heard of him; for in certain articles in the Clarion and the New Age Sir Leopold had been dealt with austerely. However, he said nothing and grimly watched the unloading of ‘the motor car, which was rather a long Process. A large, neat chauffeur in green got out from the front and a small, neat manservant in gray got out from the back, and between them they deposited Sir Leopold on the doorstep and began to unpack him, like some very carefully protected parcel. Rugs enough to stock a bazar, furs of all the beasts of the forest and scarves of all the colors of the rainbow were unwrapped one by one, until they revealed something resembling the human, form — the form of a friendly but foreign-looking old gentleman with a gray, goat-like beard and a beaming smile, who rubbed his big fur gloves together.
Long before this revelation was complete the two big doors of the porch had opened in the middle and Colonel Adams — father of the furry young lady — had come out himself to invite his eminent guest inside. He, was a tall, sunburnt and very silent man, who wore a red smoking cap like a fez; making him look like one of the English sirdars or pashas in Egypt. With him was his brother-in-law, lately come from Canada, a big and rather boisterous young gentleman farmer, with a yellow beard, by name James Blount. With him also was the more insignificant figure of the priest from the neighboring Roman church — for the colonel’s late wife had been a Catholic and the children, as is common in such cases, had been trained to follow her.
Everything seemed undistinguished about the priest, even down to his name, which was Brown; yet the colonel had always found something companionable about him and frequently asked him to such family gatherings.
In the large entrance hall of the house there was ample room, even for Sir Leopold and the removal of his wraps. Porch and vestibule, indeed, were unduly large in proportion to the house and formed, as it were, a big room, with the front door at one end and the bottom of the staircase at the other. In front of the large hall fire, over which hung the colonel’s sword, the process was completed and the company, including the saturnine Crook, presented to Sir Leopold Fischer. That venerable financier, however, still seemed struggling with portions of his well-lined attire; and at length he produced from a very interior tail-coat pocket a black, oval case, which he radiantly explained to be his Christmas present for his goddaughter.
With an unaffected vainglory that had something disarming about it, Sir Leopold held out the case before them all; it flew open at a touch and half blinded them. It was just as if a crystal fountain had spurted in their eyes. In a nest of orange velvet lay, like three eggs, three white and vivid diamonds that seemed to set the very air on fire all round them. Fischer stood beaming benevolently and drinking deep of the astonishment and ecstasy of the girl, the grim admiration and gruff thanks of the colonel, the wonder of the whole group.
“I’ll put ’em back now, my dear,” said Fischer, returning the case to the tails of his coat. “I had to be careful of ’em coming down. They’re the three great African diamonds called ‘The Flying Stars,’ because they’ve been stolen so often. All the big criminals are on the track; but even the rough men about in the streets and hotels could hardly have kept their hands off them. I might have lost them on the road here. It was quite possible.”
“Quite natural, I should say,” growled the man in the red tie. “I shouldn’t blame ’em if they had taken ’em. When they ask for bread, and you don’t even give them a stone, I think they might take the stone for themselves.”
“I won’t have you talking like that!” cried the girl, who was in a curious glow. “You’ve only talked like that since you became a horrid what’s-his-name! You know what I mean. What do you call a man who wants to embrace the chimney-sweep?”
“A saint,” said Father Brown.
“I think,” said Sir Leopold, with a supercilious smile, “that Ruby means a Socialist.”
“A Radical does not mean a man who lives on radishes,” remarked Crook, with some impatience; “and a Conservative does not mean a man who preserves lam. Neither — I assure you — does a Socialist mean a man who desires a social evening with the chimney-sweep. A Socialist means a man who wants all the chimneys swept and all the chimney-sweeps paid for it.”
“But who won’t allow you,” put in the priest in a low voice, “to own your own soot.”
Crook looked at him with an eye of interest and even respect. “Does one want to own soot?” he asked.
“One might,” answered Brown, with speculation in his eye. “I’ve heard that gardeners use it. And I once made six children happy at Christmas, when the conjurer didn’t come, entirely with soot — applied externally.”
“Oh, splendid!” cried Ruby. “Oh, I wish you’d do it to this company!”
The boisterous Canadian, Mr. Blount, was lifting his loud voice in applause, and the astonished financier his — in some considerable deprecation — when a knock sounded at the double front doors. The priest opened them and they showed again the front garden of evergreens, monkey tree and all, now gathering gloom against a gorgeous violet sunset. The scene thus framed was so colored and quaint, like a back scene in a play, that they forgot for a moment the insignificant figure standing in the door. He was a dusty-looking man in a frayed coat, evidently a common messenger. “Any of you gentlemen Mr. Blount?” he asked and held forward a letter doubtfully. Mr. Blount started — and stopped in his shout of assent. Ripping up the envelope with evident astonishment he read it; his face clouded a little and then cleared — and he turned to his brother-in-law and host.
“I’m sick at being such a nuisance, Colonel,” he said, with the cheery Colonial convention; “but would it upset you if an old acquaintance called on me here tonight on business? In point of fact, it’s Florian, that famous French acrobat and comic actor. I knew him years ago out West — he was a French Canadian by birth — and he seems to have business for me; though I hardly guess what.”
“Of course — of course,” replied the colonel carelessly. “My dear chap, any friend of yours. No doubt he will prove an acquisition.”
“He’ll black his face, if that’s what you mean,” cried Blount, laughing. “I don’t doubt he’d black everyone else’s eyes. I don’t care; I’m not refined. I like the jolly old pantomime, where a man sits on his top hat.”
“Not on mine, please,” said Sir Leopold Fischer, with dignity.
“Well, well!” observed Crook airily. “Don’t let’s quarrel. There are lower jokes than sitting on a top hat.”
Dislike of the red-tied youth, born of his predatory opinions and evident intimacy with the pretty godchild, led Fischer to say in his most sarcastic, magisterial manner: “No doubt you have found something much lower than sitting on a top hat. What is it, pray?”
“Letting a top hat sit on you, for instance,” said the Socialist.
“Now, now, now!” cried the Canadian farmer, with his barbarian benevolence. “Don’t let’s spoil a jolly evening. What I say is, let’s do something for the company tonight; not blacking faces or sitting on hats, if you don’t like those — but something of the sort. Why couldn’t we have a proper old English pantomime — Clown, Columbine, and so on? I saw one when I left England at twelve years old and it’s blazed in my brain like a bonfire ever since. I come back to the old country only last year and I find the thing’s extinct. Nothing but a lot of sniveling fairy plays! I want a hot poker and a policeman made into sausages, and they give me princesses moralizing by moonlight. Bluebirds, or something! Blue Beard’s more in my line — and him I liked best when he turned into the Pantaloon.”
“I’m all for making a policeman into sausages,” said John Crook. “It’s a better definition of Socialism than some recently given. But surely the getup would be too big a business.”
“Not a scrap,” cried Blount, quite carried away. “A harlequinade’s the quickest thing we can do, for two reasons: first, one can gag to any degree; and second, all the objects are household things — tables and towel-horses and washing-baskets, and things like that.”
“That’s true,” admitted Crook, nodding eagerly and walking about. “But I’m afraid I can’t have my policeman’s uniform. I haven’t killed a policeman lately.”
Blount frowned thoughtfully for a space and then smote his thigh. “Yes, we can!” he cried. “I’ve got Florian’s address here, and he knows every costumer in London. I’ll ’phone him to bring a police dress when he comes.” And he went bounding away to the telephone.
“Oh, it’s glorious, godfather!” cried Ruby, almost dancing. “I’ll be Columbine and you shall be Pantaloon.”
The millionaire held himself stiff, with a sort of heathen solemnity. “I think, my dear,” he said, “you must get someone else for Pantaloon.”
“I will be Pantaloon if you like,” said Colonel Adams, taking his cigar out of his mouth and speaking for the first and last time.
“You ought to have a statue,” cried the Canadian as he came back radiant from the telephone. “There we are, all fitted: Mr. Crook shall be Clown — he’s a journalist and knows all the oldest jokes. I can be Harlequin — that only wants long legs and jumping about. My friend Florian ’phones he’s bringing the police costume — he’s changing on the way. We can act it in this very hall — the audience sitting on those broad stairs opposite, one row above another. These front doors can be the back scene, either open or shut: shut, you see an English interior; open, a moonlit garden. It all goes by magic!” And, snatching a chance piece of billiard chalk from his pocket, he ran it across the hall floor, halfway between the front door and the staircase, to mark the line of the footlights.
How even such a banquet of bosh was got ready in the time remained a riddle, but they went at it with that mixture of recklessness and industry that lives when youth is in a house; and youth was in that house that night, though not all may have isolated the two faces and hearts from which it flamed. As always happens, the invention grew wilder and wilder through the very tameness of the bourgeois conventions from which it had to create. The Columbine looked charming in an outstanding skirt that strangely-resembled the large lamp-shade in the drawing room. The Clown and Pantaloon made themselves white with flour from the cook and red with rouge from some other domestic, who remained — like all true Christian benefactors — anonymous. The Harlequin, already clad in silver paper out of cigar boxes, was with difficulty prevented from smashing the old Victorian luster chandeliers, that he might cover himself with resplendent crystals; in fact, he would certainly have done so had not Ruby unearthed some old pantomime, paste jewels she had worn at a fancy dress party as the Queen of Diamonds. Indeed, her uncle, James Blount, was getting almost out of hand in his excitement; he was like a schoolboy. He put a paper donkey’s head unexpectedly on Father Brown, who bore it patiently and even found some private manner of moving its ears. He even essayed to put the paper donkey’s tail to the coattails of Sir Leopold Fischer. This, however, was frowned down. “Uncle is too absurd!” cried Ruby to Crook, round whose shoulders she had seriously placed a string of sausages. “Why is he so wild?”
“He is Harlequin to your Columbine,” said Crook. “I am only the Clown, who makes the old jokes.”
“I wish you were the Harlequin,” she said, and left the string of sausages swinging.
Father Brown, though he knew every detail done behind the scenes and had even evoked applause by his transformation of a pillow into a pantomime baby, went round to the front and sat among the audience with all the solemn expectation of a child at his first matinee. The spectators were few — relations, one or two local friends and the servants. Sir Leopold sat in the front seat, his large and still fur-collared figure largely obscuring the view of the little cleric behind him; but it has never been settled by artistic authorities whether the cleric lost much. The pantomime was utterly chaotic yet not contemptible; there ran through it a rage of improvisation, which came chiefly from Crook, the Clown. Commonly he was a clever man, and he was inspired tonight with a wild omniscience, a folly wiser than the world — that which comes when a young man has seen for an instant a particular expression on a particular face. He was supposed to be the Clown, but he was really almost everything else: the author — so far as there was an author — the prompter, the scene painter, the scene shifter and, above all, the orchestra. At abrupt intervals in the outrageous performance he would hurl himself in full costume at the piano and bang out some popular music equally absurd and appropriate.
The climax of this, as of all else, was the moment when the two front doors at the back of the scene flew open, showing the lovely moonlit garden, but showing more prominently the famous professional guest — the great Florian, dressed up as a policeman. The Clown at the piano played the Constabulary Chorus in the Pirates of Penzance; but it was drowned in the deafening applause, for every gesture of the great comic actor was an admirable though restrained version of the carriage and manner of the police. The Harlequin leaped upon him and hit him over the helmet — the pianist playing “Where did you get that hat?” He faced about in admirably simulated astonishment and then the leaping Harlequin hit him again — the pianist suggesting a few bars of “Then we had another one.” Then the Harlequin rushed right into the arms of the policeman and fell on top of him amid a roar of applause. Then it was that the strange actor gave that celebrated imitation of a dead man of which the fame still lingers round Putney. It was almost impossible to believe that a living person could appear so limp.
The athletic Harlequin swung him about like a sack or twisted or tossed him like an Indian club — all the time to the most maddeningly ludicrous tunes from the piano. When the Harlequin heaved the comic constable heavily off the floor the Clown played “I arise from dreams of thee”; when he shuffled him across his back, “With my bundle on my shoulder”; and when the Harlequin finally let fall the policeman, with a most convincing thud, the lunatic at the instrument struck into a jingling measure, with some words which are still believed to have been: “I sent a letter to my love and on the way I dropped it; and some of you have picked it up and put it in your pocket.”
At about this limit of mental anarchy Father Brown’s view was obscured altogether; for the city magnate in front of him rose to his full height and thrust his hands savagely into all his pockets. Then he sat down nervously, still fumbling, and then stood up again. For an instant it seemed seriously likely that he would stride across the footlights; then he turned a glare at the Clown playing the piano; and then he burst in silence out of the room.
The priest had only watched for a few more minutes the absurd but not inelegant dance of the amateur Harlequin over his splendidly unconscious foe. With real though rude art the Harlequin danced slowly backward out of the door into the garden, which was full of moonlight and stillness. The vamped dress of silver paper and paste, which had been too glaring in the footlights, looked more and more magical and silvery as it danced away under a brilliant moon. The audience was closing in with a cataract of applause, when Brown felt his arm abruptly touched and was asked in a whisper to come into the colonel’s study.
He followed his summoner with increasing doubt, which was not dispelled by a solemn comicality in the scene of the study. There sat Colonel Adams, still unaffectedly dressed as a Pantaloon, with the knobbed whalebone nodding above his brow, but with his poor old eyes sad enough to have sobered a Saturnalia. Sir Leopold Fischer was leaning against the mantelpiece and heaving with all the importance of panic.
“This is a very painful matter, Father Brown,” said Adams. “The truth is, those diamonds we all saw this afternoon seem to have vanished from my friend’s tail-coat pocket. And as you — ”
“As I” — supplemented Father Brown, with a broad Fin — “was sitting just behind him — ”
“Nothing of the sort shall be suggested,” said Colonel Adams, with a firm look at Fischer, which rather implied that some such thing had been suggested. “I only ask you to give me the assistance that any gentleman might give.”
“Which is turning out his pockets,” said Father Brown; and he proceeded to do so, displaying seven and sixpence; a return ticket, a small silver crucifix, a small breviary and a stick of chocolate.
The colonel looked at him long and then said: “Do you know, I should like to see the inside of your head more than the inside of your pockets! My daughter is one of your people, I think. Well, she has lately — ” And he stopped.
“She has lately,” cried out old Fischer, “opened her father’s house to a cutthroat Socialist, who says openly he would steal anything from a richer man. This is the end of it. Here is the richer man — and none the richer.”
“If you want the inside of my head you can have it,” said Brown, rather wearily. “What it’s worth you can say afterward. But the first thing I find in that disused pocket is this: that men who mean to steal diamonds don’t talk Socialism. They are more likely,” he added demurely, “to denounce it.”
Both the others shifted sharply and the priest went on: “You see, we know these people, more or less. That Socialist would no more steal a diamond than a pyramid. We ought to look at once to the one man we don’t know — the fellow acting the policeman — Florian! Where is he exactly at this minute, I wonder?”
The Pantaloon sprang erect and strode out of the room. An interlude ensued, during which the millionaire stared at the priest and the priest at his breviary; then the Pantaloon returned and said, with staccato, gravely: “The policeman is still lying on the stage. The curtain has gone up and down six times; he is still lying there.”
Father Brown dropped his book and stood staring with a look of blank mental ruin. Very slowly a light began to creep back into his gray eyes and then he made the scarcely obvious answer:
“Please forgive me, colonel, but when did your wife die?”
“My wife!” replied the staring soldier. “She died this year two months. Her brother James arrived just a week too late to see her.”
The little priest bounded like a rabbit shot. “Come on!” he cried, in quite unusual excitement. “Come on! We’ve got to go and look at that policeman!”
They rushed on to the now curtained stage, breaking rudely past the Columbine and Clown — who seemed whispering quite contentedly — and Father Brown bent over the prostrate comic constable.
“Chloroform!” he said as he rose. “I only guessed it just now.”
There was a startled stillness and then the colonel said slowly: “Please say seriously what all this means.”
Father Brown suddenly shouted with laughter; then stopped and only struggled with it for instants during the rest of his speech. “Gentlemen,” he gasped, “there’s not much time to talk. I must run after the criminal. But this great French actor, who played the policeman — this clever corpse the Harlequin waltzed with and dandled and threw about — he was — ”
His voice again failed him and he turned his back to run.
“He was?” called Fischer inquiringly.
“A real policeman!” said Father Brown; and he ran away into the dark.
There were hollows and bowers at the extreme end of that leafy garden, in which the laurels and other immortal shrubs showed against sapphire sky and silver moon, even in that midwinter, warm colors as of the south. The green gayety of the waving laurels, the rich purple indigo of the night, the moon like a monstrous crystal, make an almost impossibly romantic picture; and among the top branches of the garden trees a strange figure is climbing, who looks not so much romantic as impossible. He sparkles from head to heel, as if clad in ten million moons; the real moon catches him at every movement and sets a new inch of him on fire. He swings flashing and successful from the short tree in this garden to the tall, rambling tree in the other; and only stops there because a shade has slid under the smaller tree and has unmistakably called up to him.
“Well, Flambeau,” says the voice, “you really look like a flying star; but that always means a falling star at last.”
The silver, sparkling figure above seems to lean forward in the laurels and, confident, of escape, listens to the little figure below.
“You never did anything better, Flambeau. It was clever to come from Canada — with a Paris ticket, I suppose — just a week after Mrs. Adams died, when no one was in a mood to ask questions. It was cleverer to have marked down the Flying Stars and the very day of Fischer’s coming; but there’s no cleverness, only mere genius, in what followed.
“Stealing the stones, I suppose, was nothing to you. You could have done it by sleight-of-hand in a hundred other ways besides that pretense of putting a paper donkey’s tail to Fischer’s coat. But in the rest you eclipsed yourself.”
The silvery figure among the green leaves seems to linger as if hypnotized, though his escape is easy behind him; he is staring at the man below.
“Oh, yes,” says the man below; “I know all about it. I know you not only forced the pantomime, but put it to a double use. You were going to steal the stones quietly: news came by an accomplice that you were already suspected and a capable police officer was coming to rout you up this very night. A common thief would have been thankful for the warning and fled; but you are a poet. You already had the clever notion of hiding the real jewels in a blaze of false stage jewelry. Now you saw that if the dress were a Harlequin’s the appearance of a policeman would be quite in keeping. The worthy officer started from Putney police station to find you — and walked into the queerest trap ever set in this world. When the front door opened he walked straight on to the stage of a Christmas pantomime, where he could be kicked, clubbed, stunned and drugged by the dancing Harlequin amid roars of laughter from all the most respectable people in Putney. Oh, you will never do anything better! And now, by-the-way, Flambeau, you might give me back those diamonds.”
The green branch on which the glittering figure swung rustled as if in astonishment; but the voice went on:
“I want you to give them back, Flambeau, and I want you to give up this life. There is still youth and honor and humor in you; don’t fancy they will last in that trade. Men may keep a sort of level of good, but no man has ever been able to keep on one level of evil. That road goes down and down. The kind man drinks and turns cruel; the frank man kills and lies about it.
“Many a man I’ve known started, like you, to be an honest outlaw, a merry robber of the rich — and ended stamped into slime. Maurice Blum started out as an anarchist of principle, a father of the poor; he ended a greasy spy and talebearer that both sides used and despised. Harry Burke started his free-money movement sincerely enough; now he’s sponging on a half-starved sister for endless brandies and sodas. Lord Amber went into wild society in a sort of chivalry; now he’s paying blackmail to the lowest vultures in London. Captain Barillon was the great gentleman apache before your time; he died in a madhouse, screaming with fear of the harks and receivers that had betrayed him and hunted him down. I know the woods look very free behind you, Flambeau; I know that in a flash you could melt into them like a monkey. But some day you will be an old gray monkey, Flambeau. You will sit up in your free forest cold at heart and close to death, and the treetops will be very bare.”
Everything continued still, as if the small man below held the other in the tree in some long, invisible leash; and he went on:
“Your downward steps have begun. You used to boast of doing nothing mean, but you are doing something mean tonight. You are leaving suspicion of an honest boy, with a good deal against him already; you are separating him from the good woman he loves and who loves him. But you will do meaner things than that before you come to die.”
Three flashing diamonds fell from the tree to the turf. The small man stooped to pick them up — and when he looked up again the green cage of the tree was emptied of its silver bird.
The restoration of the gems — accidentally picked up by Father Brown, of all people — ended the evening in uproarious triumph; and Sir Leopold, in his height of good humor, even told the priest that, though he himself had broader views, he could respect those whose creed required them to be cloistered and ignorant of this world.
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